I opened up a leaf-mine of Phyllonorycter schreberella collected from Shire Lane (on the border of Bucks with Herts) today. I was looking for the moth's pupa but instead found a Hymenopteran pupa. However, this pupa didn't look entirely healthy and, behind it in the cocoon was a small grub, which was still very much alive.
The brown gash is the remains of the leaf-mine (in an Elm leaf) and I've labelled the other important things.
The larva of the moth was, of course, a parasite, as it fed on the leaf of a living plant. The Hymenopteran was, in turn, a parasite of the larva (which was presumably completely devoured, as I couldn't find a trace of it). As a parasite it counts as a hyperparasite. Strictly speaking it is a hyperparasitoid, as it killed its host. The small grub (is it a Dipteran or another Hymenopteran?), in its turn, lived within the first Hymenopteran: I suppose that makes it a hyper-hyperparasitoid.
What price it carries bacteria, which in turn carry viruses?